Guanxi - Wikipedia
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members These dynamics may harm group member relationships and undermine the .. Defusing potential emotional conflicts, maintaining a climate free of Hand signals are often used by consensus decision-making bodies as a way for. Guanxi (Chinese: 關係) defines the rudimentary dynamic in personalized social networks of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .. As such, any relevant actions taken to maintain such relationships are recognized as working Western relationship marketing, on the other hand, is much more formally constructed. Limerence is a state of mind which results from a romantic attraction to another person and typically includes obsessive thoughts and fantasies and a desire to form or maintain a relationship with the object of love and have one's feelings reciprocated. . attention to the constant, free availability of the limerent's "drug of choice".
Sedulius and Gelasius also clearly used the passage. Prosper of Aquitaine, and Quodvultdeus of Carthage, in the mids, utilized the passage.
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A text called the Second Epistle of Pope Callistus section 6  contains a quote that may be from John 8: However, in a large collection of the writings of Didymus the Blind c. If anyone is conscious in himself not to have sinned, let him take a stone and smite her. This is far from a direct quotation, but it may be a loose summary of the episode. Barring the possibility that Didymus was referring to some other Gospel than the four-Gospel collection that was typically used in the churches in his time, this reference appears to establish that the passage was present in its usual place in some Greek manuscripts known in Alexandria and elsewhere from the s onwards.
In Codex Vaticanuswhich was produced in the early s, perhaps in Egypt or in Caesarea, by copyists using exemplars from Egyptthe text is marked at the end of John chapter 7 with an "umlaut" in the margin, indicating that an alternative reading was known at this point.
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However, the date of these umlauts, or distigmai, is a matter of some debate. This codex also has an umlaut alongside blank space following the end of the Gospel of John, which may convey that whoever added the umlaut was aware of additional text following the end of John 21 — which is where the pericope adulterae is found in the f-1 group of manuscripts. Jeromewriting aroundreports that the pericope adulterae was found in its usual place in "many Greek and Latin manuscripts" in Rome and the Latin West.
This is confirmed by some Latin Fathers of the s and s, including Ambrose of Milan, and Augustine.
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery
The latter claimed that the passage may have been improperly excluded from some manuscripts in order to avoid the impression that Christ had sanctioned adultery: Certain persons of little faith, or rather enemies of the true faith, fearing, I suppose, lest their wives should be given impunity in sinning, removed from their manuscripts the Lord's act of forgiveness toward the adulteress, as if he who had said, Sin no more, had granted permission to sin.
Early textual critics familiar with the use and meaning of these marks in classical Greek works like Homerinterpreted the signs to mean that the section John 7: During the 16th century, Western European scholars — both Catholic and Protestant — sought to recover the most correct Greek text of the New Testamentrather than relying on the Vulgate Latin translation. At this time, it was noticed that a number of early manuscripts containing John's Gospel lacked John 7: It was also noted that, in the lectionary of the Greek church, the Gospel-reading for Pentecost runs from John 7: Beginning with Lachmann in Germany,reservations about the pericope became more strongly argued in the modern period, and these opinions were carried into the English world by Samuel Davidson —51Tregelles and others; the argument against the verses being given body and final expression in Hort Those opposing the authenticity of the verses as part of John are represented in the 20th century by men like CadburyColwelland Metzger Scrivener the passage was added by John in a second edition of the Gospel along with 5: This group of critics is typified by such scholars as Nolanand Burgonand Hoskier More recently it has been defended by O.
Rather than endorsing Augustine's theory that some men had removed the passage due to a concern that it would be used by their wives as a pretense to commit adultery, Burgon proposed but did not develop in detail a theory that the passage had been lost due to a misunderstanding of a feature in the lection-system of the early church. The theory that the passage was original, but was lost due to its treatment in an early lection-cycle, explains not only its absence from some manuscripts, but also its appearance in the f-1 Caesarean group of manuscripts at the end of John, and its appearance in the f group after Luke The same mechanism accounts for the movement of the passage, in a smattering of manuscripts, to precede John 7: One form of this theory is that at a very early date, an annual lection-cycle was developed for the major feast-days; in this lection-cycle, a specific segment of the Gospel of John was assigned to be read at Pentecost which was celebrated by the Christian church from its beginning, having been adopted from Judaism: This is still the form of the lection for Pentecost in the Byzantine lectionary-cycle, attested in hundreds of copies.
In an early copy used by a lector the person designated to read Scripture in early church-servicesmarks were added to signify that the reader was to stop at the end of 7: When a professional copyist, unfamiliar with the lection-cycle, used such a copy as his exemplar, he misunderstood the marks as if they meant that he, the copyist, should skip from the end of 7: Another form of this theory is that a very early copyist, preparing a Gospels-codex for liturgical use, transplanted the section to the end of John as a practical step, so as to simplify the lector's task on Pentecost so that the lector would not have to pause to find the final portion of the lectionand after the section was thus transplanted, it dropped out altogether from the Alexandrian transmission-line which is represented by the oldest manuscripts, and from related branches including one which later yielded, or influenced, the Syriac Peshitta.Lady Gaga - Bad Romance
The transplantation of the passage, in a few manuscripts, to precede John 7: Likwise, in the f group of manuscripts, the pericope adulterae has been transplanted out of the Gospel of John, and has been placed at the end of Luke 21, so as to conveniently arrange the reading for Saint Pelagia's feast-day October 8 near Luke This would initially seem to discount Goody's model, except that in North India, the joint family is composed of the groom's parents, his married brothers and unmarried sisters, and their third generation children.
But when the parents die, and the joint family partitions, this jointly held wealth was then divided among the married sons, such that ultimately, the bride's dowry given to the joint family returned to her and her husband as their "conjugal fund.
They argue that a major factor in determining the type of marriage transaction is the type of property controlled by the household. Bridewealth circulates property and women, and is typical of societies where property is limited. Dowry concentrates property and is found in property owning classes or commercial or landed pastoral peoples.
When families give dowry, they not only ensure their daughter's economic security, they also "buy" the best possible husband for her, and son-in-law for themselves. Daughters did not normally inherit anything from their father's estate. Instead, with marriage, they got a dowry from her parents, which was intended to offer as much lifetime security to the bride as her family could afford.
However, bride price almost always became part of the dowry. The return of dowry could be disputed, if the divorce was for a reason allowed under Babylonian law. He had no say, however, in its ultimate disposal; and legally, the dowry had to be kept separate for it was expected to support the wife and her children. The wife was entitled to her dowry at her husband's death.
If she died childless, her dowry reverted to her family, that is her father if he was alive, otherwise her brothers. If she had sons, they would share it equally. Her dowry being inheritable only by her own children, not by her husband's children by other women. A husband had certain property rights in his wife's dowry.
In addition, the wife might bring to the marriage property of her own, which was not included in the dowry and which was, as a result, hers alone. This property was "beyond the dowry" Greek parapherna, the root of paraphernalia and is referred to as paraphernal property or extra-dotal property.
A dowry may also have served as a form of protection for the wife against the possibility of ill treatment by her husband and his family,  providing an incentive for the husband not to harm his wife.
This would apply in cultures where a dowry was expected to be returned to the bride's family if she died soon after marrying. In contemporary Greece, dowry was removed from family law through legal reforms in All the property of the wife which was not dowry, or was not a donatio propter nuptias, continued to be her own property, and was called Parapherna.
Not only the bride's family, any person could donate his property as dowry for the woman. Two types of dowry were known—dos profectitia and dos adventitia. All other dos is adventitia. Roman law also allowed for a species of dowry, called dos receptitia, which was given by some other person than the father or father's father of the bride, in consideration of marriage, but on the condition that it should be restored back to the dowry giver, on the death of the wife.
The bride's family were expected to give a dowry when a girl married, and in proportion to their means. Some scholars believe dowry was practiced in antiquity, but some do not. Historical eyewitness reports discussed below suggest dowry in ancient India was insignificant, and daughters had inheritance rights, which by custom were exercised at the time of her marriage. Documentary evidence suggests that at the beginning of 20th century, bride pricerather than dowry was the common custom, which often resulted in poor boys remaining unmarried.
Tambiah claims the ancient Code of Manu sanctioned dowry and bridewealth in ancient India typically in Rohtak and especially in Kadia families, but dowry was the more prestigious form and associated with the Brahmanic priestly caste.
Bridewealth was restricted to the lower castes, who were not allowed to give dowry. He cites two studies from the early 20th century with data to suggest that this pattern of dowry in upper castes and bridewealth in lower castes persisted through the first half of the 20th century. The findings of MacDonell and Keith are similar to Witzel, and differ from Tambiah; they cite ancient Indian literature suggesting bridewealth was paid even in brahma- and daiva-types of marriage associated with the Brahmanic priestly upper caste.
Dowry was not infrequent, when the girl suffered from some bodily defect. Lochtefeld suggests that religious duties listed by Manu and others, such as 'the bride be richly adorned to celebrate marriage' were ceremonial dress and jewelry along with gifts that were her property, not property demanded by or meant for the groom; Lochtefeld further notes that bridal adornment is not currently considered as dowry in most people's mind.
Available eyewitness observations from ancient India give a different picture. One of these are the eyewitness records from Alexander the Great 's conquest ca. Arrian's first book mentions a lack of dowry, They these ancient Indian people make their marriages accordance with this principle, for in selecting a bride they care nothing whether she has a dowry and a handsome fortune, but look only to her beauty and other advantages of the outward person.
ArrianThe Invasion of India by Alexander the Great3rd Century BC  Arrian's second book similarly notes, They Indians marry without either giving or taking dowries, but the women as soon as they are marriageable are brought forward by their fathers in public, to be selected by the victor in wrestling or boxing or running or someone who excels in any other manly exercise. He translated many Indian texts into Arabic, as well as wrote a memoir on Indian culture and life he observed.
Al-Biruni claimed, The implements of the wedding rejoicings are brought forward. No gift dower or dowry is settled between them. The man gives only a present to the wife, as he thinks fit, and a marriage gift in advance, which he has no right to claim back, but the proposed wife may give it back to him of her own will if she does not want to marry. Al-BiruniChapter on Matrimony in India, about AD  Al-Biruni further claims that a daughter, in 11th century India, had legal right to inherit from her father, but only a fourth part of her brother.
The daughter took this inheritance amount with her when she married, claimed Al-Biruni, and she had no rights to income from her parents after her marriage or to any additional inheritance after her father's death. If her father died before her marriage, her guardian would first pay off her father's debt, then allocate a fourth of the remaining wealth to her upkeep till she is ready to marry, and then give the rest to her to take with her into her married life.
It is also unclear when, why and how quickly the practice of dowry demand by grooms began, and whether this happened after the arrival of colonialism in the 16th century.
Mann  and others    find that dowry was a form of inheritance to daughters. In traditional China, the property owned by a family, if any, was earmarked for equal division or inheritance by sons only. Dowry was the only way assets were transferred to a daughter.
It included immovable property such as land, and movable property like jewelry and fine clothing. The dowry she brought with her was typically sequestered from the property of her husband and other male members in a joint family.
She would often sell this property for cash to overcome hard economic times or needs of her children and husband.
In a few cases, she may transfer the property she brought as dowry to her daughter or daughter-in-law. Dowry assets once transferred in turn constituted separate wealth of the woman who received it sifang qian, etc.
Often a woman who brought a large dowry was considered more virtuous in Chinese culture than one who didn't. Though throughout the history of China, the practice of using a brideprice has largely been used instead of dowries, but has slowly diminished in modern times. Folklorists often interpret the folk tale Cinderella as the competition between the stepmother and the stepdaughter for resources, which may include the need to provide a dowry.
Gioachino Rossini 's opera La Cenerentola makes this economic basis explicit: Don Magnifico wishes to make his own daughters' dowries larger, to attract a grander match, which is impossible if he must provide a third dowry. Until the late 20th century this was sometimes called wreath moneyor the breach of promise. Providing dowries for poor women was regarded as a form of charity by wealthier parishioners. The custom of Christmas stockings springs from a legend of St.
Nicholasin which he threw gold in the stockings of three poor sisters, thus providing for their dowries. Elizabeth of Portugal and St. Martin de Porres were particularly noted for providing such dowries, and the Archconfraternity of the Annunciation, a Roman charity dedicated to providing dowries, received the entire estate of Pope Urban VII. Inthe Republic of Florence created a public fund, called the Monte delle dotito provide dowries to Florentine brides.
Dowry - Wikipedia
Vast inheritances were standard as dowries for aristocratic and royal brides in Europe during the Middle Ages. In some cases, nuns were required to bring a dowry when joining a convent. It was commonly given with the condition that he take the surname of his bride, in order to continue the family name. England[ edit ] Dowry was used in England. However, the right of daughters to inherit and of women to hold property and other rights in their own name made it a different instrument than on the Continent.
The Salic lawwhich required females to be disinherited and disenfranchised from land ownership, did not apply in England. Single women held many rights men did. The most famous example of this English female inheritance and agency right is perhaps Elizabeth I of Englandwho held all rights a male monarch did. While single women held rights to hold property equivalent to those of men, marriage and married women were affected by the Norman Conquest changes to the law in the 12th Century.
Coverture was introduced to the common law in some jurisdictions, requiring property of a wife to be held in the husband's name, custody and control. The Normans also introduced the dowry in England replacing the earlier custom of the new husband giving a morning gift to his bride. At first the husband publicly gave [or received?
If the husband died, which was frequent, there was a Widows dowry of one third of the husband's lands at the time of his marriage; the income, and in some cases, the management, of the lands, was assigned to her for the rest of her life. This concept is included in the Great Charterand along with the recognition of female inheritance and absence of the Salic lawand women, particularly single women, holding many rights equivalent to those men held, manifests English law differing fundamentally from the law of the Continent, especially the law of the Holy Roman Empire.
Thirteenth-century court records are filled with disputes over dowries, and the law became increasingly complex. Marriageable daughters were a valuable commodity to ambitious fathers, and the English aristocracy sent few of their eligible daughters to convents.
William Shakespeare made use of such an event in King Lear: In Measure for MeasureClaudio and Juliet's premarital sex was brought about by their families' wrangling over dowry after the betrothal. Angelo's motive for forswearing his betrothal with Mariana was the loss of her dowry at sea. In Victorian Englanddowries were viewed by some members of the upper class as an early payment of the daughter's inheritance.
In some instances, daughters who had not received their dowries were the only female heirs entitled to part of the estate when their parents died. If a couple died without children, a woman's dowry was often returned to her family. This effectively ended the concept of dowry as the property of a single woman was either retained by her after marriage or its income became marital property under joint control with a husband not under his sole control as in coverture. Dowry was a common practice in Russia through the 19th century.