India-Russia Relationship: Past, Present & Future — Valdai Club
Mattis and Pompeo to shore up New Delhi relationship amid 'irritants' over Iran and Russia. January 09, The Coming India-Russia Split. Shifting geopolitical dynamics, especially the rise of China, spell trouble for this long-standing relationship. India-Russia Strategic Partnership” in October (during the visit of Putin to India), India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new.
Jewish conversos still resided in Spain and often practised Judaism secretly and were suspected by the "Old Christians" of being Crypto-Jews. The Spanish Inquisition generated much wealth and income for the church and individual inquisitors by confiscating the property of the persecuted.
The end of Al-Andalus and the expulsion of the Sephardic Jews from the Iberian Peninsula went hand in hand with the increase of Spanish and Portuguese influence in the world, as exemplified in the Christian conquest of the Americas and their aboriginal Indian population.
The Ottoman Empire and Morocco absorbed most of the Jewish refugees, although a large majority remained as Conversos. Historians broadly agree that most native populations that converted did so under the threat of violence, often because they were compelled to after being conquered, and that the Catholic Church cooperated with civil authority to achieve this end. Goa Inquisition The Portuguese practised religious persecution in GoaIndia in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The natives of Goa, most of them Hindus, were subjected to severe torture and oppression by the zealous Portuguese rulers and missionaries, and forcibly converted to Christianity. Prohibition was laid from December 4, on rituals of Hindu marriages, sacred thread wearing and cremation.
All persons above 15 years of age were compelled to listen to Christian preaching, failing which they were punished.
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InHindu temples at Assolna and Cuncolim were destroyed by the Portuguese army. They destroyed their temples, and so harassed and interfered with the people that they abandoned the city in large numbers, refusing to remain any longer in a place where they had no liberty, and were liable to imprisonment, torture and death if they worshiped after their own fashion the gods of their fathers", wrote Filippo Sassettiwho was in India from to An order was issued in June for suppressing the Konkani language and making it compulsory to speak Portuguese, on pain of severe penalties.
All non-Christian cultural symbols and books written in local languages were also ordered to be destroyed. Historians have qualified such instances as "rare"  or "exceptional". The Shafi'i and Hanbali school however only consider Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians to be eligible to the category. In practice, the designation "People of the Book" and the dhimma status was extended even to non-monotheistic religions of conquered peoples, such as HindusJains, Buddhists and other non-monotheists.
Disputed allegations of forced conversion of young women have generated public controversy in Egypt and the UK. Early period[ edit ] The wars of the Ridda lit. Hanafi and Maliki schools, accepted non-Arab polytheists to be eligible for the dhimmi status.
Under this doctrine, Arab polytheists were forced to choose between conversion and death. However, according to perception of most jurists, all Arabs had embraced Islam during the lifetime of Muhammad.
Their exclusion therefore had little practical significance after his death in Christians under their rule generally chose to relocate to the Christian principalities in the north of the peninsula, while Jews decided to stay in order to keep their properties, and many of them feigned conversion to Islam, while continuing their religious practices in secrecy.
This led to a revival of Jewish messianismbut also led to mass-conversion. The second document details the relief of Jewish community after his murder and those who had been forced to convert reverted to Judaism.
India values the political and diplomatic support it continues to get from Russia on vital issues. India is also happy to note that Russia is recovering economically and militarily and is reasserting itself on the international sphere. India-Russia cooperation is going on smoothly and steadily in various sectors.Anil Gupta discusses Russia-India relations
Cooperation in the defense sector is still the strongest link. Off late, Russia also participated in the formation of the first group of Indian satellites for distant probing of the earth. In the nuclear-power sector Russia has already constructed two nuclear power plants at Kudankulam in south of India under Indo-Russian Nuclear Cooperation program.
Negotiations for two additional units on the same site are also going on. In the space sector too, India-Russia cooperation on Glonass is going on well.
India is also trying to get Russian Technology in tracking satellites and to have a collaborative Chandrayaan II, project involving space probes to the moon. Indo-Russian energy cooperation is also expected to get a boost in the coming years. India imports oil, mostly from the volatile region of Middle East. However, to sustain current high rate of growth, India need to secure and diversify sources of energy import. According to the International Energy Agency, India would be the third largest energy consumer in the world by after US and China.
Indo-Russian energy cooperation acquired new dimensions in the post-Soviet period, particularly in the hydrocarbon and nuclear sector. India is energy deficient country and Russia is energy surplus and therefore, a mutual interest lies in this sector.
Indian side feels that there is a clear compatibility between India's needs and Russia's resources. Indian side is adopting a policy to implement the experience of Sakhalin-1 to other oilfields in Russia. India has geared-up its energy diplomacy and is moving quickly to penetrate in the Russian energy market.
Today, the weakest link in Indo-Russian cooperation remains trade and economic ties. Trade between the two countries is extremely low. Of course, the proposal to increase this target has been announced by both the sides. Now that stringent visa regulations have eased to certain extend, the dynamic private sector companies of both the countries are engaged in boosting-up the economic partnership with each other. Private Sector in both the countries is trying to work closely to give a new direction to the economic relationship.
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India–Russia relations - Wikipedia
This project incorporates nine mega industrial zones. However, there are still certain issues related to inadequate banking and financial services, lack of brand promotion, removal of discrimination in insurance coverage and quality control concerns are coming-up as a stumbling block in Indo-Russian economic cooperation.
India and Russia are also trying to collaborate on new areas which need to be explored further, like in the area of democratisation process, social policy diffusion, in religious dialogues, in promoting secularism, tolerance, multi-ethnicity, for developments of internal economic management and planning etc.
Amidst all these positive developments as well as certain concerns, there is a hope that India-Russia friendship and the strategic partnership will scale new heights and it will grow, thrive and blossom in the coming years. Nonetheless, there is a need to create wider public interest and understanding for developing the relationship, particularly among the increasingly influential younger generations.
Without strong public support, it will be difficult to provide greater depth, a sound foundation and long-term stability to this mutually beneficial strategic partnership. There is no substitute for spontaneous and natural people-to people exchanges. India and Russia will need to build direct contacts with the entire spectrum of stakeholders and interest groups in the political, economic, military and other spheres.
Today, India-Russia relationship has many positive dimensions and can move on steadily.