Analytic Quality Glossary
They contribute meaning and value to future experience. geology enriched and expanded this girl's everyday experience and transformed her relationship with rocks. Teaching and learning science for transformative, aesthetic experience. How important is transformative research for scientific progress? weak relationship between multidisciplinarity and impact (aspects 4 and 7). Transformation, as a definition of quality, focuses on process: on the enhancement and . () defined transformation in relation to higher education as follows: . Holton, G., , Thematic Origin of Scientific Thought: Kepler to Einstein.
One must not be dissuaded if it does not conform to accepted dogma.
Thus one must have the ability to focus and ponder without deviating from the cause. It cannot be required that a researcher consumes excessive time preparing reports under the umbrella of accountability and progress.
Unfortunately, this is precisely what is required by the most present-day funding agencies.
From a policy point of view, one should attempt to create the most favorable scholarly conditions, usually dependent on a congenial, peaceful atmosphere with minimal distractions.
In some cases, but not others, equipment infrastructure will be important. The agency cannot be too selective about the type of research supported, because no one can predict how the next breakthrough will occur. If TR is a human matter, then most agencies, institutions, and by extension, researchers, must not overemphasize detailed definition and design. There is an increasing awareness that in many currently published data sets, observations and findings are only approximations Ioannidis In fact, inaccuracies are a part of the scientific process: Propagation of false information can cloud the truth and mislead scientific directions, delaying crucial discoveries.
Dogmatism can lead to such incorrect concepts. Errors in research are eventually revealed, but they may hinder progress. It is therefore incorrect to think that all science should be about brilliant, novel, groundbreaking advances. Any scientist who boldly publishes results will to some degree make mistakes. The progression of scientific discovery of necessity involves a step forward followed by reflection and testing. There is room in science for many different approaches. Simulations suggest that it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true.
Why is this true?
Some of the answers presented by Ioannidis are 1 high rates of non-replicated experiments reduces confirmation of the first discovery or data set; 2 the probability that a research observation is correct depends on previously performed accuracy; 3 The results could have been subject to bias; 4 bias could result from ignoring or not reporting all of the observations; 5 the smaller the number of studies conducted i.
The aim of research must be to approximate correct answers and then progress to the correct answers.
To stimulate novel research it may be necessary to paint novel pictures. TR often begins with a substantial degree of confusion about a topic, question, or ongoing experiment. Data sets may be conflicting or incomplete, leading to inaccurate hypotheses. Hypotheses are sometimes difficult to formulate and test, thought experiments difficult to integrate, and data sets difficult to interpret. New hypotheses may eventually develop, but the progress is usually slow, particularly if the hypotheses are not fully understood by the researchers testing its validity.
Scientific transformation is equated with innovative, cutting edge research. Such proposals appear liberally in seminars, grant applications and research papers; they accompany promises of significant advances, depending on additional funding and research.
Transformative Experience Theory – The Learning and Experience Blog
These imaginative proposals may yield breakthroughs, but more often, they lead nowhere. It is therefore the responsibility of the funding agencies to try to distinguish in advance the difference. This can be a primary source of error. After all, mistakes, when recognized, can lead to the next important discovery. Agency-funded public research programs are generally not designed to evaluate and fund TR. Bureaucrats and functionaries are often more concerned with following the rules they themselves have designed.
To the administrators, the rules may be all-important, even when discouraging the advancements of scientific discovery. These administrators may not be researchers or may have knowledge outside of the areas being considered.
The outcome is often more of the same with minor incremental advances and only rare occasional transformative advances. How can transformative science be implemented? Science is the only systematic reliable means of discovery that we have. As stated by McKnight, the balance in science is between 1 depth and breath of education and training, and 2 hypothesis-driven and random inquiry research McKnight These principles apply to many areas of teaching and research.
The following ideas are presented as possible means to implement TR at the national and international levels.
NIH transformative R01 USA relies mainly on reviewers outside the field of the proposed research in order to achieve objectivity. It will be necessary to refine the definition of TR until it is broadly acceptable. This will hopefully stimulate international debate and promote the evolution of research to more innovative approaches.
It will provide examples of where TR is needed and the rationale. However, by its very nature, uncertainties will require flexibility. Granting agencies and politicians must allow researchers to conduct research without hindrance by conservative opinion reviews. It is necessary to convince the public that without TR, dollars spent will be minimally beneficial.
We face significant globally interconnected challenges where current solutions are not available, and implementation is not immediately possible. Global climate change, unmanaged human population growth and declining world food reserves are examples.
- Transformative Experience Theory
- Transformative research: definitions, approaches and consequences
- Transformative social change
The main impediment to TR may be convincing the scientific establishment to listen and participate and to be attentive to alternatives. The establishment must encourage and support researchers who challenge orthodoxy, especially if the existing knowledge is fragmented and incomplete. Impact factors, citation numbers and the number of students supervised are not the best metrics for assessing TR.
Profound discoveries are ultimately the best index. It is known that some researchers maintain their focus on the unknown and remain true to the possibility of original discovery. They generally visualize problems and implement novel approaches. They have foresight and successful track records. Publication numbers and quality, often used as an index of scholarship, are important, but insufficient as a means of evaluation.
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Novelty and originality must be more highly valued. Here are some examples of questions that could lead to TR: Why is the speed of light the value it is?
How did life originate, and where in the universe did it arise? Is there a quantum basis to the origin of life and if so, what might it be?
Transformative research: definitions, approaches and consequences
How did an organic genetic code originate with instructions for the first cell? Identification, description, and relation to learning and instruction. Science Education, Duh, of course it matters! In addition, transformative experiences are related to a number of other important educational outcomes including: Enduring learning Transfer i. Teaching and learning science for transformative, aesthetic experience. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 21, Using transformative experience to promote positive affect and conceptual change in students learning about biological evolution.
Science Education, 97, Teaching for transformative experiences in science: An investigation of the effectiveness of two instructional elements. Teachers College Record, Motivation, learning, and transformative experience: A study of deep engagement in science. Science Education, 94, This is a question in need of further research.
Initial studies suggest students are more likely to undergo transformative experiences when they have an interest in the domain, identify with the domain, perceive a connection to their teacher, and adopt a learning goal orientation i.
For a research report and theoretical musings, see: Beyond control and rationality: Dewey, aesthetics, motivation, and educative experiences.
Click here for more details. For more details and research reports, see the following articles: Real-world engagement with controversial issues in history and social studies: Teaching for transformative experiences and conceptual change. Journal of Social Science Education, 15, Appreciating the beauty of science ideas: Teaching for aesthetic understanding. Science Education, 87, Facilitating transformative experiences and interest with a parent involvement intervention.
Science Education, Advance online publication, Facilitating interest development and transfer in at-risk college students. It has three central features: Increased participation … Greater numbers of students will have to be accommodated, and these students will be recruited from a broader distribution of social groups and classes.
In a situation of financial constraints, planning and negotiations will have to ensure that wider participation is affordable and sustainable. Greater responsiveness …In essence, heightened responsiveness and accountability express the greater impact of the market and civil society on higher education and the consequent need for appropriate forms of regulation.
Increased cooperation and partnerships The new system will emphasise cooperation and partnerships in governance structures and operations of higher education. The model of cooperative governance, proposed by the NCHE and endorsed by the Ministry, reconceives the directive role of the state with a steering and coordinating role. For Harvey and Knighttransformation involved transforming institutions to enable learner transformation.
For many governments and intergovernmental organisations, higher education has a key role in providing the change agents for the future.